The handling of the samples requires time and dedication to avoid contamination of the pulp. To adequately prepare the samples the fruits were brushed by using sandpaper so that the itchy fur won’t contaminate the pulp. It takes a lot of time, the extraction of the powder was only completed by the third day after sample collection.
Intra household decision making in baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) products: Commercialization strategies in West and North Kordofan. A research project by Amna Alnour (MSc student from the University of Khartoum, Sudan).
The main goal of this research is to assess the impact of intra household gendered decision making and access to institutional support on baobab commercialization strategies. For this, Amna has collected primary data in a field survey conducted in February 2021 und June 2021 by using a structured questionnaire, group discussions, interviews and direct observations.
The sample size was 230 households, 105 household from North Kordofan state, and 125 household heads from West Kordofan.
The sampling unit in this study is the person who collects baobab or has someone at home collecting.
So far the data collected was subjected to descriptive statistics to describe the socioeconomic profile of household heads (e.g. gender, age, educational level, or marital status), cash income from different activities (e.g. baobab resources, agriculture, animal production, wage labour, etc.), resource ownership, livelihood assets, and livelihood strategies. Further, to allow for comparative analysis, data relating to the quantities of Baobab products collected and sold was collected.
HACCP, which stands for ‘Hazard analysis and critical control points’, is a preventive approach commonly applied in the food industry. It aims to enhance food safety by identifying biological, chemical, and physical hazards in the production process that can cause the finished product to be unsafe and designs measures to reduce these risks to a safe level. A HACCP analysis was developed for the production of baobab fruit pulp in Kenya together with the enterprise Vokenel Ltd.
The HACCP team went through the whole production process in order to identify the hazards during the collection of baobab fruit, the storage, and the processing of fruit to pulp and seed and update quality control procedures accordingly.
Storage of the baobab fruit
Cracking of the baobab fruits after the training
Extracting baobab fruit pulp at Vokenel Ltd after the training
Photos by Margret James (MSc student JKUAT, Kenya)
Baobab fruits have been sampled in Mangochi, Malawi to be able to check different quality parameters during the ripening process of the fruit. In total three harvesting trips were conducted (one per month) facilitated by project partner Zankhalango Association. Initially 15 trees were selected, from the ten most suitable trees fruit samples were collected.
The harvesting starts with the sampling of the fruits from the huge baobab trees. The next step is to clean the fruits´ shell from all dirt and hairs, so that the pulp won’t be contaminated. Afterwards the pulp is extracted from the fruit and milled to powder as you can observe in the video. This powder is the basis for pulp testing in the laboratory.
The field activities in Malawi are progressing well. With regard to the baobab root tuber field trials, harvesting activities have just been completed in Mangochi. During the last 3-4 months in total 60 farmers have planted and taken care of baobab seedlings. Now it is time to carefully measure the harvested baobab tubers and leaves in order to be able to assess the yields achieved. Results from this activity, coupled with, amongst others, a consumer survey and nutrient analysis, will help us draw conclusions on the technical feasibility, market potential and profitability of baobab root tuber and leaves production.
Furthermore, experiments are being carried out on further potential uses of the baobab shells, which remain after processing the fruit. Currently we are investigating the conversion into briquettes, which again can be used for cooking – instead of charcoal or firewood collected from the forests. Please enjoy watching first tests of fabricated baobab briquettes, in cooking traditional Malawi foods!
The 10th Anniversary of the Nagoya Protocol was celebrated in Kenya on the 3rd to 7th November 2020 at the Lake Bogoria Spa Hotel. Chief Guest was the Chief Administrative Secretary in the Ministry of Tourism and Wildlife IG (Rtd.) Joseph Boinnet. Other invited guests included, UNEP regional representative for Africa Dr. Juliette Biao; The Principal Secretary in the State Department of Wildlife – Prof Fred Segor, The Deputy Governor, County Government of Baringo -Jacob Chepkwony; Director general KWS – represented by Dr. Patrick Omondi, Director General NACOSTI, Prof. Walter Oyawa, CEO Kenya Wildlife Conservancies Associations (KWCA – Lucy Ng’anga, County Executive Committee Member for Environment, Natural, Resources, Tourism and wildlife, Dr. Maureen Rotich, County Executive Committee Member for Tourism (Laikipia), County Executive Committee Member for Tourism (Kakamega), representatives from UNDP, NEMA, Universities, NGOs and private sector.
Speaking on behalf of KWS’ Director General, the Director of Biodiversity Research and Planning Dr. Patrick Omondi said that Kenya joined the world in celebrating the 10th anniversary of the Nagoya Protocol. Dr. Omondi stated that KWS is collaborating with several partners among them UNDP global ABS project and GIZ ABS initiative on implementation of various activities in line with Nagoya Protocol. Dr. Juliette Biao congratulated Kenya for making broad steps in the domestication of the Nagoya Protocol both at national and county levels. She praised the Soda Lake project – which focuses on actualizing the benefits from genetic resources in Kenya – as being one of the few in the world where practical aspects of embracing the Nagoya Protocols are being done. She reiterated that the Nagoya Protocol ensures that no one is left behind. It calls for inclusivity of local communities and all stakeholders, with attention to the needs of women, children and people with disabilities. Prof. Fred Segor indicated that Nagoya protocol requires the establishment of domestic measures, with clear legal clarity, certainty and procedures guidelines for both users and providers.
Among the projects invited to share their experiences at the event, Prof. Willis Owino shared the experiences of the Baofood and the Baoquality projects in the acquisition of the needed permits concerning the Nagoya Protocol. The baobab projects attracted interest from the participants in that it was different being a food and nutritional security based, noncommercial project, which was different from the other projects subjected to the Nagoya permit process to date. The following recommendations can be derived from our experience:
Simplified process for non-commercial research in comparison to commercial ventures.
Shorter and more standardized procedures. Since the Nagoya protocol permit process cuts across a number of government agencies, there is need of a one stop shop for the permits.
Consideration of a longer permit term limit since 1-year permit is just too short considering the process that is required. There is need of at least a 2 year of 3-year permit.
Based on experiences in Mangochi, Malawi an instruction manual on how to best cultivate baobab seedlings has been published on our website. The manual covers all steps from seed and field preparation, how to manage the seedlings e.g. with regard to irrigation and pests, up to harvest of leaves and root tubers – which can be used as a food source.
Currently, baobab root tuber field trials are running in Mangochi, Malawi in order to determine the technical feasibility, market potential and profitability of baobab root tuber and leaves production. 60 farmers are currently involved in these field trials, who have each sowed (pre-treated) baobab seeds and are now taking care of the seedlings. The work is carried out in collaboration with Zankhalango Association and scientifically supervised by project partners Mzuzu University and Rhine-Waal University of Applied Sciences, to determine level of factor input, output and technology assessment.